What is the computer? and Why was the computer invented? both questions’s answers will be discussed in this post computer has entered or is in the process of entering many areas of our life. The utility of computers in everyday work is increasing. Computer generated electricity bills come to our homes every month, students of schools and universities get their exam results from computer generated mark sheets, and railway tickets are now being reserved through computers in most cities and India All air tickets are obtained through computer only.
The use of computer in factories, higher education and research institutes and schools is increasing day by day and now many new areas like banks, rail transport and post telegraph have come under its influence. Why is this happening?
What is the computer?
To find the answer to this question, What is the computer? we have to consider three other questions. One, what is a computer? two, that What is it capable of doing? And three, how can we get him to do this? Since the origin of the word computer is from the English word ‘compute’, which means to calculate.
So it is clear that ‘computer’ will be related to calculations, but since ancient times man has been using various means to calculate. Without efficient calculations, the construction of pyramids would not have been possible, nor could big cities, long roads, canals and dams be built. High technical skills were required in the construction of all these and for these precise and accurate calculations were done without the help of a computer, then today.
Computer a Machine
Even before electrical engineering was established as a successful engineering discipline, attempts were made to calculate by mechanical means. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, a scientist named Charles Babbage
Successful, Mathematical and Statistical Tables in Babbage’s time were prepared by an army of clerks. In spite of complete care, many mistakes used to happen in it. Babbage spent much of his time examining these lists, and it was probably a sense of boredom that inspired him to build an automatic machine. Among Babbage’s early achievements was the Difference Engine, which was built in 1822 and continued to be used for the next 56 years.
Babbage called his mechanical mathematical machines engines. In 1833, he started working on his ‘Analytical Engine’ and this is the machine that later became the basis of the structure of the computer. The machine that Babbage had conceptualized in theory was never fully built due to experimental difficulties. can do. Yet that machine was capable of 60 addition minutes. Its important parts are the foundation stone of various divisions (building blocks) of today’s computer. The different divisions of Babbage’s machine were as follows:
Store Division, in which numbers can be kept safely and from where they can be made available in time.
Arithmetic Division In this division calculations were done on the basis of numbers available in the store. These calculations were done by the process of rotation of wheels and gears.
> Control (Control) Division which is used to determine that all the calculations could run in the right order and without disturbances. This was also done on the basis of a series of wheels and gears.
> Input division which is used to transmit commands to the internal parts of the machine.
>Output section which used to display the results obtained by the calculation. In Fig. 1.1 these
The arrangement of the five divisions is shown. They match perfectly with today’s computers. stores, mills and
Central Processing Unit
The combination of controls is called the Central Processing Unit (CPU) in today’s computers. The input and output divisions, which are responsible for taking in information and displaying results after computation, are still referred to as are called by names.
Why was the computer invented?
Why was the computer invented? Because it was necessary to do so under certain circumstances. During the Second World War, it was realized that in order to achieve a better strategic position, it was necessary that in the direction of science and technology, it was necessary to compete with fast and long-range tanks, such a capability was developed with the help of which Unseen targets can also be attacked.
To fulfill this need, radar was invented, with the help of which the direction and speed of the enemy’s advance could be detected. After this it was necessary that the guns should be focused on the target given by Raha so that their fire could reach the right place. But for this, difficult, accurate and quick calculations were required.
This was not possible on the basis of man’s time. For this, a machine was needed that could do this type of calculation quickly and without error. Then the idea of such a machine started seriously and a lot of money, time and good scientists were put into it.
In 1942, the Fabistic Research Lab began work with the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. The computer ‘Eniac’ built by him in 1946 was adept at making calculations and tables. He could do this work in less time and without making mistakes.
In the beginning, computers were basically used only for calculative tasks. But today its field of work has become much wider and wider. Be it forecasting the weather or designing machines and buildings, setting the direction of the spacecraft going to the moon or printing books and newspapers, computers have proved their usefulness.
Computers are also capable of performing many other tasks such as microscopic examination and analysis of disease, booking seats in airplanes, calculating monthly salaries of factory workers, and accounting. It is clear from this that although initially the computer was made only for the quick solution of complex numerical calculations, but later on it also started fulfilling many such needs which were non-mathematical, so to say that the computer is only a fast calculation. It is not correct, today more than 80% of the work done on the computer is non-mathematical work.
Therefore, instead of calling the computer only a calculator, we are going to do computing (processing) on the basis of information. You can say tool. Its proper name will be Computer and its basic work will be Information Processing (Computation of Information) whether it is a mathematical or non-mathematical computer just a calculation. Assuming the device is underestimating its potential by 80%.
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